When computer savvy is used maliciously, it could spell chaos and data breaches. As with the recent WannaCry ransomware attacks, many organizations—including hospitals—had their systems taken advantage of by amateur hackers, jeopardizing patients’ records and putting the health care industry in major disarray. Read the article below by Sy Mukherjee of Fortune to know why medical systems are especially unprepared to deal with this new class of cyber-criminals:
The WannaCry attack has jolted our digital lives. Mark Schiefelbein—AP
The ongoing saga of the WannaCry ransomware attack which devastated the U.K.’s National Health Service (NHS) over the weekend and has already infected hundreds of thousands of computers across the globe reads like a Black Mirror episode set in our very times.
A cadre of amateur hackers took advantage of security flaws in widely-used Microsoft operating systems with a technique gleaned from none other than the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA)—and consequently brought a nation’s health system to its knees while throwing patients’ lives into disarray.
It’s still too early to gauge the fallout from this digital delinquency. But the breach highlights a stark—and scary—reality about health IT: Outdated medical systems are woefully unprepared to deal with a new class of criminals willing to hold patients’ medical data, credit card numbers, and other personal information hostage barring a big payout. In fact, the FBI has issued several stark warnings about the unique and growing threat ransomware presents to health care companies specifically in the past few months.
Interoperability is at the heart of the blockchain technology and for the health care industry, this ability could power a more accessible yet safer way of health information exchange. For instance, taking advantage of this innovation for electronic medical records sharing will not only provide patients with real-time information but also deliver a faster way of data sharing among institutions and healthcare providers.
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The technology could give rise to new health information exchanges (HIE) models that will create more efficient electronic medical records. Although it still in its early stages, here are the potential uses of Blockchain technology that will revolutionize the healthcare industry.
Health record management
The technology has the potential to build a less complicated and more updated digital record-keeping system. As a ledger technology, it can promote interoperability, ensuring integrity and privacy for patient records.
Patients can have the full control and real-time access to their own medical data so that they can easily share it with other healthcare providers like hospitals, insurance companies as well as laboratories.
With its real-time access and control capabilities, patients can share data to various groups or individuals. Data sharing are pre-approved so that it will only be shared with the patient’s chosen group of individuals or organizations.
Transferring a patient’s medical records between institutions and healthcare providers will be faster and will cost less. In addition, compliance costs will be reduced and the digital nature of this technology will make auditing easier.
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Blockchain technology has not yet reached its full maturity in its possible applications in other industries and there are still issues that need to be addressed. However, many experts believe that it has the revolutionary potential to transform the health care industry in the future, which can spell a healthcare boom, higher client satisfaction rates, and even increased value of healthcare stocks—the latter a major plus for investors.
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Digitalization has not only encompassed modes of entertainment such as movies and music. It has also made its way into the hospitals and the healthcare system. This has numerous positive implications for the industry. Not only will service delivery become faster, but it will also translate to a more efficient working framework. This is a most welcome change for one of the pitfalls of healthcare is that it is highly cluttered. That’s why the numerous startups that are popping up in this field are something to truly watch out for.
Zocdoc is one of the pioneers in this field. On average, patients struggle just to acquire a doctor’s appointment. Zocdoc wants to solve this problem by giving patients real time access to their healthcare providers through their app. During their early days a few years ago, they were able to raise $15 million.
Force Therapeutics, meanwhile, is drastically improving patient outcomes by giving them direct communication with their doctors. They take it a step further by educating them through video recordings. They mainly deal with patients with musculoskeletal problems.
The co-founders of Flatiron Health had a first-hand experience of what it means to fight cancer. That is why they launched their cloud-based startup which mainly focuses on the digitalization of oncology. They were able to raise an incredible $175 million in funding.
StartUp Health on the other hand has made their goals a little bit bigger. In a span of 25 years, they are planning to improve the global healthcare system by elevating the wellbeing of all through their network of Health Transformers.
Many more positive changes in the healthcare industry will happen in the next couple of years or even decades, and most of them will be largely based on technological advancements. Thus far, hundreds of millions of dollars have already been spent to develop apps or tools that could streamline data management within the industry.
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According to the World Health Organization, a healthy city is a setting wherein there is continual change in the improvement of the physical and social aspect of the environment which its residents occupy. It will also enable them to mutually support each other in the performance of life activities. Ultimately, a healthy city is a place where the people within it will achieve the best quality of life possible. Naturally, people want to spend their days in a happy and conducive environment, and these healthy cities from all over the world are definitely making the benchmark so high for the others.
In the United States of America, the title of healthiest city would go to Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, Florida. This is based on the Gallup-Healthways’ Community Well-Being Index. When they interviewed the residents of these locations, they were able to find physical, emotional, financial, and social health satisfaction. It certainly is no fluke that they are in the top spot for it is their second year in a row there.
If the US has Naples, then Europe has Copenhagen. It has been dubbed as one of the healthiest cities in the world as proven by its track record. It is an environment which is nearly ‘stress-free’ because only 2 percent of the population are working for 40 hours or more in a week. This translates to residents having more time to do what they want to do, including more time for an active lifestyle.
Moving to Asia, the honor would go to Okinawa. The residents there are so healthy that they are beating the life expectancy average for men and women by a whole decade. It also has the highest concentration of people who are living to be a hundred or more (centenarians). They practice vigorous exercise and a lean diet. That’s why their average body mass index hovers around 18 to 22.
Among Latin American cities, meanwhile, Havana in Cuba is perhaps the healthiest in the region. The country as a whole has a life expectancy similar to that of the US. Despite being a generally poor city, Cuba has a near-100 percent vaccination rate and health screenings are quite regular. Residents in Havana are taught about proper nutrition, exercise, and first aid from a young age.
In the world’s smallest continent, Melbourne boasts of a quality of quality that is matched only by a few other cities on earth. This Australian metropolis has been named the ‘most livable city in the world’ by the Economist Intelligence Unit, which ranks places based on a number of categories or criteria including healthcare, education, crime rate, and lifestyle. Melbourne is very clean, safe, and hospitable, with a pleasant weather, top-notch infrastructure, and absence of any civil unrest that plague many other urban centers.
Health and economic performance have direct correlation. Improving the health of a nation’s citizens would most likely translate to economic prosperity because there will be more people in the workforce able to perform effective activities. Policy choices with regard to healthcare should therefore not be taken lightly. Countries with strong health and education conditions may find it easier to achieve sustained growth.
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As one ages, his or her body will inevitably go through several changes—and often on the less delightful side of the spectrum. Such changes can occur no matter the circumstance, and they can get really incommodious as one nears his or her golden years. Apparently (and naturally), the elderly face more health problems than the younger ones. That’s why it is ideal (and often necessary) to keep track of one’s fitness throughout his or her life.
For starters, everyone should watch out for chronic back pain. According to a study from the University of Sydney, senior citizens with back pain are 13 percent more likely to die due to any cause. This is alarming because most individuals think of back pain as a not-so-dangerous condition. The researchers also stated that the intake of painkillers are not an effective means of treating the condition. In many cases, such drugs can only lead to a few more conditions. Scientists are urging everyone to keep on moving and partake in a healthy lifestyle—one which involves a vegetable-rich diet and frequent exercise.
A person’s joints and muscle power will eventually deteriorate come retirement age. Many physical activities one might have enjoyed 10 or 20 years ago many no longer be possible today. For older people who have bad athletic habits, there is risk of unnecessary injury. Their regimens need to be tailored according to their condition, needs, and goals. Co-morbidities need to be considered as well. For example, in people who have arthritis, walking could be a viable exercise. Combined with proper diet, chances of age-related diseases are sure to diminish.
An aging population is detrimental to any country’s economy. A healthy and able-bodied population is apparently what should constitute the workforce. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle can help people stay productive even through retirement. In fact, some of the world’s wealthiest individuals have remained active in the business and investment world up to their 70s or 80s… and these are people who place high priority on their health.
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The Big Short is a recently released movie based on the real life investments of three US hedge funds and their managers: Michael Burry, Mark Baum and Charlie Geller/Jamie Shipley. All three funds bet against the US subprime debt market which collapsed in 2008, propelling all three funds’ portfolio values to astounding heights as the rest of the US market crashed and burned.
Michael Burry who ran Scion Capital LLC was the first to discoverin as early as 2005 how certain bonds that were supposed to be conservative, low-risk investments were actually based on subprime mortgage dealsthat had an inherently high risk of default. Convinced of this fact, he went about to createan instrument by which he can bet against those subprime deals. He was able to persuade Goldman Sachs to sell him credit default swaps that would enable him to profit from a collapse of specific deals he considered particularly susceptible.
At that time, Goldman Sachs agreed to sell him the credit default swaps because they thought he was likely to be wrong. Burry’sbet went against commonly accepted valuations at that time. And for the next few years it seemed Goldman Sachs was right. Mortgage bonds continued to rise up until 2008.
For an agonizing while, Michael Burry was wrong. Before his fund posted any gains, it first sank in the deepest of reds. It got so bad that his investors threatened to sue him already. Burry even started questioning his model, thinking that the whole US financial system was rigged as the bond values he expected fall, even rose in seeming defiance of logic.
Fortunately, however agonizing though it was, Burry stuck with his guns. Finally, his predictions came true and the subprime debt crisis exploded in 2008. Burry’s investors, no doubt suffering excruciating distress over the past few years since the fund bet against the mortgage bond market, finallybegan to see their gains. As the bond market started to free fall, their hedge fund’s average gains skyrocketed, reaching as high as 489% as of 2008.
What can we learn from Michael Burry’s story? You can be right and yet still be wrong.
In Burry’s case, he was dead right about the collapse of the bond market. But what he couldn’t predict was the exact timing of the collapse. As John Maynard Keynes said, the markets can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent. A lot of Burry’s clients, as they began to lose confidence in their hedge fund’s strategy, already wanted out. Scion Capital almost became insolvent before the bond market started to actually act rational about the subprime debt situation. In such cases where you are right about a fact but not exactly right about the timing, you better be sure you have the stomach and the funding needed to stick it out until the end – until the event you are betting on actually takes place.
Michael Burry isn’t alone in falling into such a predicament. Some reputable names in the investment world are actually, currently in the same situation.
Take the famous investor Jim Rogers, for example. Rogers motorcycled around the world to find the best investment opportunities. He sold his New York apartment and relocated to Singapore mainly because he believes that the US economy is facing an impending collapse. Jim was bullish on emerging markets, especially China and so has most of his portfolio tied up in that market. However, the Chinese economic growth toutedby everyone actually ended with a crash last year, with the Chinese market collapsing in late 2015 and again just a few days into 2016. Rogers might still be right. But for now, he’s wrong.
Marc Faber is another example. Known for his gloom and doom outlook for the US economy, he invested in gold and recommended againstinvesting in bonds. Unfortunately, the market went against him for a while as gold prices dropped and bond prices performed well in 2015. This year, Faber has said that he thinks investing in bonds is now a better option than investing in the stock market. Is Faber right about his gloomy outlook for the US economy? Will gold actually become a brilliant investment if Faber’s prognosis comes true – leading to multiple gains that would far outweigh all current unrealized losses? Possible. But for now, he’s wrong.
What should you do if you find yourself in the same situation? If these legendary investors found themselves wrong for a time, how much more the typical, ordinary individual.
Like these brilliant men, what we advise at LOM, is you should revisit your model and assumptions. If you find that some factors did not turn out as expected, then you should adapt. Be a dynamic investor. You can’t be “married” to your investment. You have to cut your losses if you are wrong.
But if you believe that your model and investment assumptions are still solid and it’s only a matter of timing, then you need to brave it out. Of course, solvency is a key factor that will determine if you can last. If you are highly leveraged, then you might not have the luxury of waiting it out. You need guts and a stable source of funding so you can wait it out when you are right – but just wrong at the moment.
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Although China’s stock market is relatively new, its enormous size makes it a huge and overwhelming force in the world economy. China’s two stock markets, Shanghai and Shenzen, combined, fall only second to the size of the New York Stock Exchange.
The Chinese government has no qualms about blatantly intervening in its stock market whenever necessary. In its desire to spur trading volumes, it has in past years, opened up trading to the retail sector, fostering an environment of easy credit that has allowed investors to borrow a total of 365 Billion USD. Even more unsettling is the fact that many of the new accounts that have opened since 2014 were opened by inexperienced investors who decided to invest just to participate in the stock market hype.From farmers to taxi drivers, these new investors exert a heavy influence on the stock market. Despite government intervention, they were still able to cause the market to plummet in August last year and now in 2016. 6% of Chinese investors are illiterate, according to a Deutsche bank report, while around 60% left school at age 15.
It’s easy to look down on the Chinese stock market. Right now it seems fashionable to castigate the Chinese government for artificially pumping trading volume even if business and economic fundamentals would have resulted in much lower yet safer trading levels. Fake bags, fake buildings, fake food, fake businesses and a fake stock market.However, when you glance out across the ocean to the United States of America, you see a similarly flawed stock market.
When the US real estate bubble popped in 2008, the US government had to intervene to prevent the banks from failing. The US government resorted to printing new money to bail out the big lenders. All the years since then, the US stock market (and the world market) has been on a significant uptrend with investors partying on easy credit. However, a lot of analysts see that the stock market party is almost at its end.
Both the Chinese and US stock markets have been tinkered with by their governments. The Chinese government intervenes as a matter of standard procedure, with zero transparency. The United States government acts like it has been cornered into intervening just so it can shield American citizens from pain and save the world from financial Armageddon. Through the years since 2008, the US and most national governments have been kicking the can of pain down the road by engaging in some mild form of market intervention via their economic and central bank policies.
What makes the predicament of the Chinese economy different from that of the US? Well apparently, the Chinese economy could even actually be in a better state than the US.
Even with the huge absolute number of retail investors trading at the Chinese stock markets, these astounding figures only represent a small participation coming from the Chinese economy as a whole. The people who recently got wiped out from investing in the Chinese stock market, as sad a story as they are, only come from a small percentage of the country’s population. Hence, the Chinese economy is not fatally exposed to its stock market. In contrast, a huge percentage of the US population is exposed to the US stock market. A stock market crash will debilitate the US economy and most of its people’s lives.
Another stark difference between the US and Chinese markets is the condition of their governments’ foreign reserves and budgets. The US is the world’s biggest debtor nation and it owes China big time. China can single-handedly crash the US economy by selling its US Treasury Bills. The US can’t do much to China except pretend to scold it a bit for its belligerence in the South China Sea. It’s a bit of a farce when the US says that it will defend China’s neighbors from China’s imperialistic trespassing in the disputed territories of the China Sea. When you consider its financial state of affairs, the US can’t even defend itself- it’s economy – from the Chinese.
In conclusion, although it seems China is the greatest threat to world markets right now, it is not the weakest link in the chain of stock markets and economies. The US seems to be a better candidate for that. No one likes a redux of the Great Depression. However, by delaying financial pain via economic policies and government maneuvering – by kicking the can down the road- governments are just making the pain harder, albeit postponed for the meantime. No one really can tell how long this can go on. Both the US and China are intervening in their markets. The Chinese are socialists and authoritarian, but with a lot of gold reserves and receivables from the US. The US, is democratic, magnanimous to all individuals, but spends more than it has and is a debtor to China.
Makes you wonder who should be learning from who.
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